Tagged: Tariffs

Book News from WTO Publications, December 2016

The latest issue of Book News from WTO Publications, highlighting recently launched titles and products, is now available.

Featured in this instalment are four new titles:

To learn more about WTO Publications and availability of titles, visit the WTO Publications website or the WTO Bookshop website.

Preferential Trade Agreements between Asymmetric Countries

This paper examines differences in welfare implications between a free trade area (FTA) and a customs union (CU) for member countries differing in their market sizes. In a stylized three-country model of trade under oligopoly, we take into account the conditions that FTA members set external tariffs to induce their exporting firms to comply with Rules of Origin (ROO) within the trade bloc.

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The “Emulator Effect” of the Uruguay Round on US Regionalism

Using a detailed data set at the tariff line level, we find an emulator effect of multilateralism on subsequent regional trade agreements (RTAs) involving the USA. We exploit the variation in the frequency with which the US grants immediate duty free access (IDA) to its RTA partners across tariff lines. A key finding is that the US grants IDA status especially on goods for which it has cut the multilateral most favored nation (MFN) tariff during the Uruguay Round the most. Our results suggest that the Uruguay Round multilateral “concessions” have elicited subsequent preferential trade liberalization.

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The Effects of Trade and Investment Liberalization on Korea’s FDI

While most of RTA talks have incorporated rules on industrial tariff and non-tariff barriers, services, and trade remedies in the past, countries now seek to co-operate on other areas of policymaking, such as rules on investment. This article provides detailed analysis on the effects of trade and investment liberalization on Korea’s inward and outward foreign direct investment (FDI) by collecting all relevant information on substantive investment provisions contained in all Korea FTAs in force as May 2013 and constructing indices of the extensiveness of investment provisions.

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Input-trade liberalization, export prices and quality upgrading

This paper explores the impact of input trade liberalization on imported input and exported product prices. Using Chinese transaction data for 2000–2006, we capture causal effects between exogenous input tariff reductions and within firm changes in HS6-traded product prices. For identification, we make use of a natural control group of firms that are exempted from paying tariffs. Both imported input and export prices rise. The effect on export prices is specific to firms sourcing inputs from developed economies and exporting output to high-income countries. Results are consistent with a scenario within which firms exploit the input tariff cuts to access high-quality inputs in order to quality-upgrade their exports.

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Effects of the Mexican Apple Tariff on the World Apple Market

In response to the USA blocking Mexican trucks from traveling to the inland part of the USA, Mexico imposed tariffs on US fresh apple exports. This study analyzes the impacts of the Mexican tariff on USA, Mexican and world apple markets by using theoretical analysis and developing a spatial equilibrium trade model. The results show that this tariff increases apple prices in Mexico, to the benefit of Mexican producers but harming Mexican consumers. Even though Mexico collects revenues from its tariff, the overall welfare impact is negative because consumers’ loss outweighs producers’ gain and tariff revenues. Since the USA exports less to Mexico, its prices and production decline, but consumption increases. To mitigate the export market loss to Mexico, the USA redirects its exports to other importing countries, displacing other apple exporting countries’ trade with these importing countries.

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Export Competition between Landlocked and Coastal Countries

This paper analyzes economic rivalry between two firms using an international Cournot duopoly model, where a firm from a landlocked country (LC) and a firm from a coastal country (CC) compete in a third-country market. It is assumed that the landlocked country firm adopts a transport-cost reducing R&D subsidized by its government, while the CC government imposes a toll fee on the LC firm. The findings show since a change in the LC’s transport-cost reducing R&D subsidy has a positive effect on its export and a negative effect on the CC’s export, both measures have effective strategic export policies.

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