World Bank Economic Review – Volume 29, Issue 1

Chinese Firms’ Entry to Export Markets: The Role of Foreign Export Spillovers
Optimal Food Price Stabilization in a Small Open Developing Country
Powering Up Developing Countries through Integration?
(Ineffective) Messages to Encourage Recycling: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation in Peru
Development at the Border: Policies and National Integration in Côte D’Ivoire and Its Neighbors
Fiscal Responses after Catastrophes and the Enabling Role of Financial Development

Global Supply Chains and Trade Policy Responses to the 2008 Crisis

Using trade and protection data for seven large emerging market countries that have a history of active use of trade policy, the influence of these and other factors on trade policy responses to the 2008 crisis are empirically examined.

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Aid for food security: does it work?

The paper’s objective is to contribute to existing literature by examining whether development aid has any measurable impact on food security, whether the impact is conditioned on the quality of governance, and whether it differs based on the type of aid provided.
The paper finds that aid in general has a small positive impact on food security; that multilateral aid, grants, and social and economic aid have a positive effect on food security in their own right; and that bilateral aid, loans, and agricultural aid are more conditioned on the quality of governance that other aid.

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US and Chinese Strategic Trade Policies and Product Differentiation in the ASEAN Apple Market

We investigate oligopolistic competition between US and Chinese apple exporters in the ASEAN market using strategic trade theory and the NEIO literature. We also analyze competition in the US and Chinese domestic markets. The US supplies higher quality apples to ASEAN than China, resulting in product differentiation. The results show that US exporters had a higher markup than Chinese exporters through the 1990s; however, as the share of Chinese apples expanded, the US markup declined and the Chinese markup increased dramatically. Competitive pricing prevails both in the US and Chinese domestic markets.

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Direction of Trade Statistics / International Monetary Fund – 12/2014

The Direction of Trade Statistics Online service provides data on the value of merchandise exports and imports between each country and all its trading partners. The database includes: total bilateral and multilateral exports and imports aggregated at national or regional group level.

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Subsidies, Clean Energy, and Climate Change

Estimates show that fossil fuel subsidies average USD 400–600 billion annually worldwide while renewable energy (RE) subsidies amounted to USD 66 billion in 2010 and are predicted to rise to USD 250 billion annually by 2035. Domestic political rationales for energy subsidies include promoting innovation, job creation and economic growth, energy security, and independence. Energy subsidies may also serve social and environmental goals. Whether and to what extent subsidies are effective to achieve these goals or instead lead to market distortions is a matter of much debate and the trade effects of energy subsidies are complex.

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Industrial Policy in High-Income Economies

This paper charts trends in industrial policy in high-income economies in the post-1945 period. Three distinct phases are identified. The first covers the post-war reconstruction period and extends to the end of the 1970s. Here, a number of governments took major initiatives in funding or supporting new or dynamic activities with the aim of catching up with the US in terms of productivity levels or in easing the adjustment of declining sectors. The second is from the start of the 1980s to around the mid-2000s. The more interventionist version of IP was abandoned in favour of policies of privatization, market liberalization, and competition. In the last ten years, attitudes have shifted. The current model in high-income economies at or close to the technology frontier is based on the premise that growth must be innovation-driven as this provides the basis for long-term competitiveness.

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