Tagged: Canada

New publications from OECD, early August 2017

WTO: European Communities – Measures Prohibiting the Importation and Marketing of Seal Products

The case of European Communities – Measures Prohibiting the Importation and Marketing of Seal Products (EC – Seal Products)2 raised the issue of whether the EU Seal Regime3, which prohibits the importation and marketing of seal products, was justified under the right to protect public morals. Besides this issue, the complainants – Canada and Norway – challenged the discriminatory nature of the ban, and the exceptions thereof, which allegedly discriminated against their industries. In May 2014, the Appellate Body (AB) issued its decision in a very complex and controversial case. Although on different grounds, the AB upheld the Panel’s finding that the EU Seal Regime was in some respects discriminatory under Articles I:1 (Most-Favoured Nation) and III:4 (National Treatment) of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 (GATT). But, the AB confirmed the Panel’s finding that the EU Seal Regime was justified under Article XX (a) of the GATT public morals exception. The AB, however, found that the EU Seal Regime was not applied in a manner that met the requirements of the Chapeau Article XX of the GATT. The AB asserted that the design of the EU Seal Regime could lead to the arbitrary and unjustifiable discrimination between countries where the same conditions for seal welfare prevailed. In addition to this, the AB decision provides an interpretation of de facto discrimination under Articles 1:1 and III:4 of the GATT, as well as shedding some light on the constitution of ‘technical regulations’ according to the WTO Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT).

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Risk-based food safety and quality governance at the international law, EU, USA, Canada and France: Effective system for Lebanon as for the WTO accession

Following the establishment of the Lebanese food safety authority (LFSA) in the food safety draft law, this study aims to find the appropriate food safety governance system in Lebanon in accordance with the risk analysis and the clauses of the World Trade Organization (WTO) Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Agreement. It describes the regulatory and institutional food safety governance system developed in USA, EU, Canada and France using inventory approach and in-depth interviews at institutional level to profit from their previous experience in this field.

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Trade Policy Implications of Global Value Chains / Sébastien Miroudot, Dorothée Rouzet, Francesca Spinelli

Taking global value chains (GVCs) into account has important implications for trade policy. When production is vertically fragmented and trade in intermediate inputs is prevalent, one has to look differently at a certain number of issues. Through case studies, this paper provides new evidence on the incidence on services of tariffs levied on goods (case study 1) and then discusses effective rates of protection in a world of GVCs and what the removal of tariffs on intermediate inputs implies, using the example of Canada (case study 2). To illustrate how trade agreements could be made more relevant for GVCs, the paper further looks at sectoral approaches in trade negotiations through the example of the Information Technology Agreement (case study 3) and finally compares the network of regional trade agreements in force with global production networks (case study 4).

Full-text available in .pdf