Tagged: Europe

UNEP Global Environment Outlook Regional and Gender Assessments

UNEP has recently published a set of Global Environment Outlook (GEO) regional and gender assessments. Regions covered include Asia and the Pacific, the Pan-European region, North America, Africa, West Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean.

These publications are available from the UNEP website or directly from following the links below:


Export strengths and competitiveness of China and Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe at the EU-15 market

The impact of the emergence of China as a global competitor on the trade performance of Central, Eastern and Southeastern European (CESEE) countries at the EU-15 market.

Full-text available in .pdf

Trade, trust and the rule of law

Well-functioning institutions, both formal (i.e. rule of law) and informal (i.e. trust), facilitate economic exchange. To investigate the nature of the relationship between formal and informal institutions, we analyze bilateral trade patterns in a sample of 16 European countries between 1996–2009. Our results show that trust and rule of law are substitutes, as the positive effect of trust on trade is conditional on the quality of the rule of law. When the rule of law of the importing country increases relative to that of the exporter, the effect of trust on trade decreases. The decline in the effect of trust on trade is less for importers than for exporters, a result that can be attributed to the risk of non-payment that exporters run.

Full-text available in .pdf

The impact of different policy environments on agricultural land use in Europe

The impact of globalization on trade, production and land use was key to the Doha development round. Although many studies have shown the positive influence of liberalization on trade and production, the environmental questions remain unanswered in most studies.

Full-text available in .pdf

Protected: Weeks of 2 and 9 July: Working Papers

Protected: Week of 18 June: Working Papers

Week of 13 February: European Foreign Affairs Review, Vol. 17, Issue 1, 2012